When examining the research done in managing projects area about the achievement of projects goals, plans for long term, the atmosphere of managing projects and the human side of managing projects, it is found that stakeholders roles are crucial in managing projects by many researchers (Littau et al., 2010). Cleland (1986, cited in, Littau et al., 2010) suggests that stakeholders are essential to managing projects. As a result, the study of who are the stakeholders, their types, examining them, and preparing a plan to deal with them is believed to be needed.
It is argued that the stakeholders’ role in managing projects is extremely essential. Furthermore, the governance of stakeholders is believed to be crucial competency in managing projects. Freeman (1984, cited in, Littau et al., 2010) stated that the stakeholders are those that has interests in the accomplishment of goals of the institution or concerned with the outcomes of the aims attained. The previous statement is considered in some studies to be the standard description of the stakeholder.
Many researchers believe that Freeman statement is the beginning of the understanding of the stakeholder’s issues (Littau et al., 2010). The investigation of the stakeholder issues in managing projects is sought to provide full illustration of the stakeholder concepts and arguments. It is suggested that the stakeholder definition is gaining more inclusive analysis from different sides.
the stakeholder significance in managing projects is considered crucial as well. In addition, the assessment of projects and study of the broad plan of the projects are fund to be encouraging the improvement of the understanding of the stakeholder concepts and arguments.
In the following sentences, I will extend my review to include a major part of the research done in the stakeholders’ management area. The research in managing projects showed that the way the people in the institution behave is significant to managing projects (Assudani & Kloppenborg, 2010). Nevertheless, the research did not demonstrate the problems associated with the way people behave in the project management.
Arguably, studying the connections between stakeholders in the project management is well illustrated through utilization of the approach that considers the project as a structure where members interact with each other. In addition, the understanding of stakeholder’s concepts and arguments is beneficial in explaining the problems in performance of the stakeholders of the project.
Studying the way of stakeholders’ management in project context is believed to be essential because it is found that it is crucial in the accomplishment of the project by many studies (Assudani & Kloppenborg, 2010). The roles of different stakeholders are suggested to be changing during the project time. As a result, the project manager is encouraged to measure stakeholders’ roles and define them at every stage of the project. there is a suggestion that I find important which find that the stakeholders are beneficial in giving necessary knowledge for achievement of the project. Therefore, Assudani & kloppenborg (2010) believe that the stakeholders’ evaluation is needed at different phases of the project.
Moreover, another suggestion is that the understanding of the stakeholders’ concepts and arguments would assist in knowing the persons or parties that affect the project accomplishment and outcomes (Assudani & Kloppenborg, 2010). The approach of the project as a group of individuals who interact together adds to the understanding of the stakeholders’ concepts and arguments. examining the views of the different persons and parties involved in the project in how the tasks and jobs are done, how the exchange of information and ideas between the project group and the impact of the results of the project on them is a recommendation that should be done during the various phases of the project to correctly detect the changing of the real and effective stakeholders in every phase of the project. Moreover, it enables the project manager in identifying the key persons and parties that could impact the accomplishment of the project. Consequently, the project manager becomes aware of the way the exchange of information and ideas should be done effectively and allocating the needed sources more efficiently.
The study of the interests of the different stakeholders at the beginning of the project is essential to the success of the project (SuSatterfield al., 2006). A structure of a plan of action is suggested to assist the person who manages the project in dealing with the stakeholders’ interests. The plan of action structure is composed of nine measures for managing stakeholders of the project. First of all, the person who manages the project should clarify the view of the future of the project. In addition, he or she should define the tasks needed to accomplish the project. Secondly, an investigation by the person who manages the project of the elements that affects the project which could be handled by the project group and the ones that cannot be handled by the project group.
The elements that could be handled are the advantages and the disadvantages of the group of the project. Furthermore, the elements that are not handled by the group of the project are the good chances and the risks that the group of the project should deal with. Thirdly, the project manager has to describe the persons and the parties that have interests in the project done.
The fourth measure is identifying the actions and policies in handling the interests of every stakeholder (Satterfield t al., 2006). The fifth measure is to identify the plans of action to deal with the interests of the stakeholders to assist them in accomplishment of their aims and in the same time assist the person who manages the project in reaching his or her aims. The sixth measure is to collect and assign the required sources to make the plans of actions to deal with the interests of the stakeholders be achieved.
The seventh measure is to make the plans of actions to deal with the stakeholders of the project realized. The eighth measure is to assess the plans of actions to handle the stakeholders of the project and to improve them if needed.
Finally, the project manager should seek responses of the different stakeholders of the project routinely and examine these responses to improve the plans of actions of handling the stakeholders of the project (Satterfield t al., 2006). The plans of actions to handle stakeholders of the project are found to be useful in evaluating the project and the stakeholders of the project and the specific aspects which lower the possible disputes with stakeholders and develop the advantages of the members of the project and the chances that the stakeholders provide.
In conclusion, stakeholders’ management is essential for successful delivery of projects. Therefore, stakeholders’ behavior in project context should be well understood. However, every project has its own plan of action to handle different stakeholders.
The paper prepared by : THE PEAK Business Research Center ,
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